Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt. Berbers are distributed in an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Siwa Oasis in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Niger River in West Africa.
Berber ARE distributed from the Atlantic Ocean to Egypt, and from the Mediterranean Sea to the area spread over the Niger River in western Africa. Historically, BERBERS spoke of barbaric languages, which together make up the Barbary branch of the Afroasiatic family. Since the Muslim conquest of North Africa in the 17th century, a large number of Berber living in Maghreb (Tamazhagua) have different degrees of use of Lingua franca, which in most cases is a Magharbei Arabic dialect. After the colonization of North Africa by France, "the French government succeeded in integrating the French language into the official national language and integrating the French language into Algeria and there was a need to do all the teaching in French. People who speak Bebber are around25-30 million in Africa.
The regions of North Africa have retained barbaric language and traditions, in general, the Hauts Plains of Morocco and Algeria (kabylie, aures etc.), most of which have remained largely independent in the Roman and Turkic periods. Ottoman infiltrated the Kabbali area, and as far as the Phoenicians could not infiltrate, far from the coast, where Turkey's influence could be seen in food, clothing, and music. These areas have been affected by many attacks from North Africa, recently French.
Additionally, genomic analysis has found that Berber and other Maghreb communities are defined by a shared ancestral component. This Maghrebi element peaks among Tunisian Berbers. It is related to the Coptic/Ethio-Somali, having diverged from these and other West Eurasian-affiliated components prior to the Holocene.In 2013, Iberomaurusian skeletons from the prehistoric sites of Taforalt and Afalou in the Maghreb were also analyzed for ancient DNA.
All of the specimens belonged to maternal clades associated with either North Africa or the northern and southern Mediterranean littoral, indicating gene flow between these areas since the Epipaleolithic. The ancient Taforalt individuals carried the mtDNA haplogroups U6, H, JT and V, which points to population continuity in the region dating from the Iberomaurusian period. Human fossils excavated at the Ifri n'Amr or Moussa site in Morocco have been radiocarbon-dated to the Early Neolithic period, ca. 5,000 BC.
Ancient DNA analysis of these specimens indicates that they carried paternal haplotypes related to the E1b1b1b1a (E-M81) subclade and the maternal haplogroups U6a and M1, all of which are frequent among present-day communities in the Maghreb. These ancient individuals also bore an autochthonous Maghrebi genomic component that peaks among modern Berbers, indicating that they were ancestral to populations in the area. Additionally, fossils excavated at the Kelif el Boroud site near Rabat were found to carry the broadly-distributed paternal haplogroup T-M184 as well as the maternal haplogroups K1, T2 and X2, the latter of which were common mtDNA lineages in Neolithic Europe and Anatolia. These ancient individuals likewise bore the Berber-associated Maghrebi genomic component.
This altogether indicates that the Late Neolithic Kelif el Boroud inhabitants were ancestral to contemporary populations in the area, but also likely experienced gene flow from Europe.